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Exploring Jupiter’s Icy Moons: ESA’s Juice(Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer) Mission



JUICE successfully launched from Europe’s Spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana, on April 14, 2023, at 8:14 a.m. EDT (1214 GMT). 

JUICE is a European Space Agency (ESA) mission that will examine Jupiter and three of its icy moons: Europa, Callisto, and Ganymede.

It will undertake detailed observations of Jupiter and its three huge ocean-bearing moons, Ganymede, Callisto, and Europa, after an eight-year voyage. This ambitious mission will characterize these moons using a sophisticated suite of remote sensing, geophysical, and in situ equipment in order to learn more about these enticing destinations as potential habitats for past or current life. Juice will conduct in-depth observations of Jupiter’s complex magnetic, radiation, and plasma environments, as well as its interactions with its moons, in order to explore the Jupiter system as a template for gas giant systems throughout the Universe.

Juice has two monitoring cameras mounted on the spacecraft’s ‘body’ to record various deployments. The pictures are 1024 × 1024 pixel photos. The photographs in this gallery have been gently treated with a preliminary color adjustment.

Once in the Jovian system in 2031, a scientific camera will be employed to capture high-resolution photographs of Jupiter and its cold moons.

JMC1 is placed on the front of the spaceship and stares diagonally up into a field of view that includes a portion of one of the solar arrays and will ultimately include deployed antennas.

The top-mounted Juice Monitoring Camera 2 (JMC2) monitors the multi-stage deployment of the 16-meter-long Radar for Icy Moon Exploration (RIME) antenna. RIME is an ice-penetrating radar that will be used to remotely investigate the subsurface structure of Jupiter’s big moons.
RIME is now in a stowed state; it will unfurl in sections over the next few days. Images will be taken to document the entire deployment.

JUICE’s mission to Jupiter will take seven and a half years and will include three returns to Earth, where the spacecraft will get gravity aids from our planet to help it modify its course. At Venus, the spacecraft will also undergo one of these maneuvers.

The spacecraft will arrive at Jupiter in December 2031 and will orbit the planet for three years, conducting close flybys of three of its major moons: Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. The probe will then enter orbit around Ganymede, the biggest moon.

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Unveiling the Wonders of the Andromeda Galaxy!!



And beyond the Milky Way are billions of other vast galaxies and the nearest galaxy of Milky Way is Andromeda

Human imagination has long been captured by the vastness of the night sky, which is dotted with celestial treasures. The Andromeda Galaxy is one such wonder that has fascinated scientists and stargazers for ages. This magnificent spiral galaxy, also referred to as Messier 31 or M31, has a unique place in the universe. We shall travel to the Andromeda Galaxy in this blog, solving its riddles and revealing the splendor that exists beyond of our own Milky Way. When we look up on a clear, moonless night away from any city lights, we can see thousands of stars glistening above us. But these are only a tiny portion of the stars that make up the Milky Way Galaxy, our galactic home. Beyond what we can see in the night sky are hundreds of billions of other stars. Beyond the Milky Way are billions of other vast galaxies. That bright smudge of light ahead is our sister Galaxy Andromeda, the closest large Galaxy to ours, and the most distant thing most of us humans can see with the unaided eye from Earth. It is around 2.5 million light years away, an incredibly vast distance. But luckily, by using this simulation we can travel faster than the speed of light. We can leave our solar system within a blink of an eye. But luckily, by using this simulation we can travel faster than the speed of light.We can leave our solar system within a blink of an eye.The planet that every single human has ever existed upon is now just a tiny speck, The Sun just another star in a sea of bright dots. To understand the sheer scale of the Milky Way Galaxy, however, we need to travel more than 500 light years vertically, a journey that will allow us to see our galactic home in all its glory.The Milky Way is a barred spiral Galaxy and is around 13.6 billion years old. Large pivoting arms can be seen stretching out across the cosmos, creating a disc shape that spans an area more than 100,000 light years.It’s incredible to think that our star, the Sun, is just one of an uncountable number of stars that make up this Galaxy, although it has been estimated to contain between 100 billion and 400 billion stars.

Discovery and Identification

Throughout history, beginning with the ancient civilisations, people have seen and recorded the Andromeda Galaxy. The galaxy was officially documented in the renowned “Book of Fixed Stars” by the Persian astronomer Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi only in the tenth century. It was added to the list of non-cometary objects by French astronomer Charles Messier in the 18th century, when he cataloged it as Messier 31.

Location and Size

The closest spiral galaxy to our Milky Way is the Andromeda Galaxy, which is located around 2.5 million light-years from Earth. With an approximate diameter of 220,000 light-years, it dwarfs our galaxy by a great deal, making it the biggest galaxy in the Local Group, a collection of galaxies that also includes the Milky Way, Triangulum Galaxy, and a few smaller galaxies.

Structure and Composition

The Andromeda Galaxy is a magnificent spiral galaxy that has a brilliant center bulge surrounded by conspicuous spiral arms. Star clusters, interstellar dust, and young, blazing stars cover these arms, weaving an amazing tapestry of cosmic splendor.

The number of stars in the Andromeda Galaxy is diverse, ranging from huge, short-lived stars to smaller, longer-lived stars, much like the Milky Way. Its celestial canvas is further enhanced by nebulae, gas clouds, and dust lanes, which create an ideal environment for the formation and development of stars.

These are entire galaxies scattered across the observable universe. You may notice that the galaxies are not scattered randomly.Instead, they are grouped in gravitationally bound clusters interspersed with vast dark voids, giving the universe a magnificent cobweb like structure.The observable universe contains at least 100 billion galaxies, but there are possibly trillions, and they come in all kinds of different shapes and sizes.

Most of these galaxies are extremely far away, however, and can only be seen with powerful telescopes.But there are some that are, cosmically speaking, relatively close to the Milky Way, close enough to be a part of what’s called the Local Group.This group is a vast cluster of more than 30 galaxies, all within a space of around 10 million night years or so.

The Milky Way is just one of three large galaxies in the Local Group, but it’s not the largest.That would be the one that we are currently heading towards, the Andromeda Galaxy.The magnificent cosmic structure is named after the area from which it can be seen in the Earth’s sky, the Andromeda constellation, which itself is named after the Ethiopian Princess who, according to Greek mythology, was saved from certain death by the hero Perseus.Like the Milky Way, Andromeda is a Bard spiral Galaxy with enormous circling arms.

Andromeda-Milky Way Collision

The Andromeda Galaxy’s inescapable path toward collision with our own Milky Way is among its most intriguing features. Astronomers foresee a stunning dance between the two galaxies as they combine to form a new, larger galaxy, even though this cosmic meeting is not projected to happen for another 4 billion years. Even with this event’s enormous scope, individual star collisions are implausible due to the great distances between stars.

Andromeda Galaxy

Future Exploration

Our ability to explore the cosmos grows in lockstep with technological advancement. Various satellite missions, like the Hubble satellite Telescope and forthcoming observatories such as the James Webb Space Telescope, are still working to uncover the mysteries of the Andromeda Galaxy. These missions offer astronomers with high-resolution photos and detailed data, allowing them to analyze its structure, composition, and dynamics with unparalleled precision.”Strange words are used.”

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Deep Space Network: How Do We Communicate with Faraway Spacecraft?



Ever wondered how do scientists and engineers communicate with faraway robotic spacecraft exploring our solar system?

When scientists and engineers want to send commands to a spacecraft, they turn to the Deep Space Network, NASA’s international array of giant radio antennas used to communicate with spacecraft at the moon and beyond. Operators at the Deep Space Network take commands, break them into digital bits, precisely aim these big antennas at the spacecraft, and send those commands to the spacecraft using radio waves.

But what are radio waves really?

Well, to start with, you probably already know they’re part of the electromagnetic spectrum, which includes other kinds of waves and light that you’re familiar with. Electromagnetic energy is a type of energy that can travel through space as waves that have different properties depending on the size and spacing of the waves. These waves span a broad spectrum, from very long radio waves to very short gamma rays. The human eye can detect only a small portion of this spectrum, which is why it’s called visible light. Radio waves are the longest in the electromagnetic spectrum, and the wavelengths used by the Deep Space Network currently range from about the size of a dime to the size of a dollar bill. Radio waves are all around us. We use them when we listen to music over the radio or send emails from computers using Wi-Fi, or when we talk on cell phones. Computers and cell phones are actually just high tech radios. Radio waves also travel really, really fast. At the speed of light, that’s 186,000 miles per second. But our solar system is also really, really big.

The Deep Space Network

The Deep Space Network – or DSN – is NASA’s international array of giant radio antennas that supports interplanetary spacecraft missions, plus a few that orbit Earth. The DSN also provides radar and radio astronomy observations that improve our understanding of the solar system and the larger universe.

The DSN is operated by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), which also operates many of the agency’s interplanetary robotic space missions.

The DSN consists of three facilities spaced equidistant from each other – approximately 120 degrees apart in longitude – around the world. These sites are at Goldstone, near Barstow, California; near Madrid, Spain; and near Canberra, Australia. The strategic placement of these sites permits constant communication with spacecraft as our planet rotates – before a distant spacecraft sinks below the horizon at one DSN site, another site can pick up the signal and carry on communicating.

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22 Starlink satellites have been launched by SpaceX 




On Saturday, August 26 at 9:05 p.m. ET, Falcon 9 launched 22 Starlink satellites to low-Earth orbit from Space Launch Complex 40 (SLC-40) at Cape Canaveral Space Force Station in Florida. Following stage separation, the first stage landed on the Just Read the Instructions droneship, which was stationed in the Atlantic Ocean.

What is Starlink program by SpaceX?

The goal of SpaceX’s Starlink project is to use a constellation of thousands of satellites to deliver high-speed internet connectivity to any location on Earth. Elon Musk established SpaceX. The satellites orbit the Earth at a low height of roughly 550 kilometers and are launched in groups of 60. In particular, Starlink wants to provide internet access that is quicker, more affordable, and more dependable than currently available options in rural and distant locations where connectivity is scarce or nonexistent.

How does Starlink work?

In contrast to conventional satellite internet, which relies on a single geostationary satellite orbiting at around 35,000 km above the planet, Starlink satellites travel much closer to the surface, at about 550 km, lowering latency and boosting connection bandwidth. Four phased array antennas and two parabolic antennas are used on each satellite to boost capacity.

Starlink launch history

The launch that took place tonight extended SpaceX’s record for a calendar year with its 63rd launch of 2023. The prior record, 61, was established in 2022.

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